Recent Articles

The Archipelago Of VOC And Christianization Mission

0 comment
HISTORY OF CULTURE | The Archipelago Of VOC And Christianization Mission | Around the year 1500 there has been no political unity called "Indonesia". At that time, the territory of Indonesia which is now still a part of the world islands, the archipelago, which lies between mainland Asia and Australia. In this world the various kingdoms emerged and submerged again. With the exception of some remote areas only, these kingdoms had * a relationship with the wider world through trade routes. Export goods of the famous pepper is from Aceh, and cloves and nutmeg from North Maluku. Through a series of ports in Southeast Asia, India and the Middle East, the spices were transported to Europe. Through the line also come new ideas and new technologies.

Since the beginning of our era, Hinduism and Buddhism, which came from India, has a major influence, particularly in Sumatra and Java. However, in other areas of the pattern of life is still determined by traditional religious tribes of Malayo-Polynesian. Starting in 1300, the religion of Islam, brought by merchants from Western India, acquire an increasingly strong position. Religion was entered first into Aceh, and from there extends to the south and east. Around the year 1525 the entire north coast and most of the interior of the island of Java was ruled by Muslim kings. Islam is also embedded on the coast of Sumatra and parts of Borneo. But the natural state of the two islands of this great new lead in the 19th century that religion can be entered in the interior. Of Java, Islam jump to the Moluccas and the Southern Mindanao by passing the island of Sulawesi (Makassar new to Islam in 1605).

Because the Catholic Mission and later the Protestant Church the most developed in Eastern Indonesia, the situation there, particularly in the Moluccas, was about to be described in more detail. Maluku region divided from the point of ethnic, political, and religious. Its inhabitants include the various tribes, each of which has its own language. In the area of ​​North Maluku, there are several kingdoms, including Ternate and Tidore. In other parts of Maluku every village stand alone, but the influence of Ternate and Tidore increasingly widespread. Starting from the second paroan the 15th century, most people accept Islam Maluku, especially the kings in the north, which then bears the title of sultan, and Hitu peninsular on the island of Ambon. But some hold on to tribal religions, including most residents of Halmahera and villages in the peninsula Leitimor. Finally it should be mentioned that the Moluccan population divided by a dualistic pattern, that takes * about * tangkan Patasiwa and Patalima groups. Including the Patalima Ternate, Tidore the Patasiwa. This situation gave birth to battle constantly. In the midst of a turbulent world, the Portuguese who entered at the beginning of the 16th century is only one force in the midst of so many other forces, they can not determine its own direction they wish to travel, but more must react to the actions of others.

Entry of the Christian Religion

Early history of Christianity in Indonesia is not the same as the dawn of the Protestant Church. In 1605 the Christian religion is no longer a stranger in the archipelago. Mung * kin once the Christian merchants from Arab khalifa or from South India to set foot in Indonesia starting from the 7th century or the 8th AD In 1323-1324 a member of the Franciscan Order, Oderico de Pordenone, visiting Borneo, the palace of Majapahit, and Sumatra. Twenty years later a messenger from the Pope met with a number of Christians in Sumatra [SGA I, 34v]. However, in this era of Christianity has not been rooted in the Earth Indonesia. Congregations that there may not leave scars, and in any case consists only of migrants.

Conversely, the expansion of Christianity that took place in the 16th century laid the foundation of the church that stands today. Around the year 1500 entered the Roman Catholic mission coincided with the soldiers and Portuguese and Spanish traders. In those days people of Spain and Portugal had just managed to repel the Arab rulers of Europe, but the Islamic kingdoms in North Africa remains a security threat to Southern Europe. At that time the Turks launched a great attack in the name of Islam in Southeast Europe. They conquered Christian countries in the Balkan peninsula and in 1529 invaded the country instead of Germany. Europeans feel besieged, and attempting to make a counter-attack by moving the circular. That way they hope to also get direct access to areas of origin of luxury goods as long as it reached Europe through the mediator in the East Indies and Egypt or Turkey. Then they explore the ocean to find a way to "the Indies", which is located behind the Turkish camp.


For them, the Indian was a fairy tale, the source of unimaginable wealth. As he sailed westward, the Spaniards discovered America, which at first they thought were "the Indies" (so-called natives "Indians"). A few years later, the Portuguese managed to reach the "Indies" the truth, namely the Indian Ocean region, and immediately began a military and economic war against the Muslims there, who they view as a ally of the Turks. They are not strong enough to colonize a large area, but only seize or establish a series of fortress along the trade route that stretched from India to Indonesia and China Eastern. Main strongholds is Goa (west coast of India), Malacca (Malaysia area now), Ternate and Solor (off the coast of Flores), as well as the Macao (China offshore). From their base in America, the Spaniards colonize and Christianize the North and Central Philippine region. At a later date, their influence extends to the islands of Sangihe and North Maluku.

It is clear that the activities of Europeans in Indonesia, particularly the Portuguese, religious motives, military motifs, and motifs interwoven trade. So fortresses they have dual functions. In it there is a military barracks, warehouses for merchandise, and a church building. The priests serving the soldiers and merchants in the fort. Sometimes they also came out to bring Christianity to the natives who live around the fort. But in general spread of the gospel does not become their primary goal. Said one high official of the Portuguese era: "They come with a crucifix in one hand and a sword in the other. But when they found wealth, they immediately rule out the cross and fill their pockets ". The most active group mission is to perform the work of the clergy of the order, in particular members of the Society of Jesus (SJ) who worked in Asia since the 1540s. Beside them, the Order of Franciscans and Dominicans also need to be called.

Laying the Basic Christian Church

Here we only give an outline of the history of Catholic missions in the 16th century and the 17th. Who want to know the ropes can find in the work history of the Catholic Church in Indonesia, Volume I, and the Yeast Carita I. We will successively discuss the development of western Indonesian archipelago and in the East.

At the time the Portuguese arrived in the archipelago, the inhabitants of coastal areas of Sumatra and Java had converted to Islam. After all, in terms of politics they are relatively compact, they have formed a powerful kingdom with a relatively large area, such as Aceh, Johor, Banten and Demak. Therefore, the mission did not succeed to get a foothold there. Only in the city of Malacca, which in the 1511-1641 period is the main stronghold in the east of Portuguese Goa, there is a rather large Christian congregation, headed by a bishop. But this congregation is made up of immigrants from Europe and their descendants. Elsewhere in the western part of the archipelago there is never a stable congregation. In the 1580's there was the mission in East Java which is still part of Hindu religion; a century later, an Italian priest named Ventimiglia managed to penetrate into the interior of South Kalimantan. But the effort failed.

Developments in other Eastern Indonesia. As noted above, there the Portuguese could not determine its own direction they wish to travel, but more must react to the actions of others. Similarly with their mission. Christianity was successfully implanted in Eastern Indonesia. Only, unlike the way the expansion of rice or other food crops, grown in a planned, but more like the grasses that grow anywhere seed carried by wind or birds. Society of Jesus tried to spread the Gospel with more regular. But in the midst of storms of war, they had not managed to instill congregations in new areas. Later, in China, Japan, and India, the Jesuits and members of other orders indicates that they are able to build a solid church, so long as they can work in peace.

In 1522, less than half a century after Islam arrived at Ternate, the Portuguese set up a fort on the island. Thus, for the time they became allies of Ternate (a Muslim). In subsequent years several magnifying Ternate successfully baptized, but the royal dynasty and the mass of the people stick to the religion of Islam, which they profess since 1473. Christian community in Ternate remains "fortress church". But in some other area Christian congregations born natives. Let us realize that these churches is the result of the Moluccan own initiative. In Halmahera, population of the village on the east coast of the island requested that the Portuguese in Ternate protect them from enemies and accept the religion of their protectors (1534). They were given rudimentary religious instruction, was baptized and given a new name, the name of the Portuguese. Thus, the pattern of conversion to Christianity-like conversion to Islam.

In the long term, Christian congregations in Halmahera can not stand, because it began in 1570 a war raged between Ternate and the Portuguese, who had killed the Sultan of Ternate, Hairun. The killing led to a long partnership turned into enmity, and political reasons described above is no longer valid. Church of the fort of Ternate were wiped out with fort, and in Halmahera was the Christian religion can not survive. However, while it successfully planted the seeds of Christians in Ambon. Around the year 1510 brought Islam to Hitu of Java. In 1538, the Sultan of Ternate (Islam) with the help of allies of the Portuguese (Christian), attacking people Hitu (a Muslim), who is assisted by a fleet of Java. People Hitu defeated. Then a number of villages around the Bay of Ambon, which has not converted to Islam, calling for the Portuguese. They also would receive their religious friends. In later Christianity spread to other villages in Ambon and Lease. Just as Christians in Halmahera, Ambon who can not live peacefully. They must constantly resist the attacks of Ternate and Hitu, and they should help in his battle against Ternate Tidore. However, in contrast to Halmahera, Ambon and Christianity can survive in the future is also widespread.

Christianity also spread to North Sulawesi and Sangihe. In 1563 the King of Manado and the number of people baptized. Siau king happened to be visiting there and participate baptized; population Siau island itself followed some years later. But since the Portuguese increasingly pressured by the Ternate, this seed can not be maintained. New in the 17th century, when the Spaniards from the Philippines to expand their influence into the region, successfully established congregations rather steady.

Christianity also spread over a region that lies outside the influence of the Sultan of Ternate, which is in East Nusa Tenggara. This area is important for Portuguese traders, since they produce sandalwood, which is sold in India and China. In 1556 five thousand people are baptized on the island of Timor. Thus was born the Christian congregations in Flores and on several other islands. Dominicans here are active. They established a kind of religious state, with the center on the island of Solor. Fort in Solor was they who built it. In this area also Christian groups involved in wars and are often attacked by outside forces. But they survived and grew into a kind of enclave of Portuguese in Southeast Asia.

Thus, the spread of Christianity in the 16th century was the beginning of the history of religion in Indonesia. We mention a few characteristics. (1) Christianity is not imposed on people of Indonesia, but accepted by them based on political considerations, economic, ethnological, military. (2) The spread of Christianity is not a purely religious phenomenon, but intertwined with other factors. (3) The emphasis of the Christian congregation located in Eastern Indonesia. (4) For adherents, Christianity is not a foreign element, but one's own. Indigenous religion and culture as well as a new religion that blends into a new identity. (5) Christians are willing to treat * hold * it, and defend their new identities against all enemies. Age was also the * right * to witness the faith who are willing to die for his faith.

THE CULTURE OF MANGGARAI TRIBE

0 comment
HISTORY OF CULTURE | THE CULTURE OF MANGGARAI TRIBE | Manggarai is located at the western tip of Flores island, bordering the east by Ngada district, west by Sealat sapepulau Sumbawa / Bima district, north of the Flores Sea south to the sea and Sabu. The total area of  7136.14 km2, the region is arguably the most fertile in the province. The area is very vast and fertile farms, coffee plantations that stretched disebahagian its territory, namely high rainfall in a year reached 27.574 mm, a third of that number (more than 7000mm) fell in January.

The capital of Manggarai is located approximately 1200 meters above sea level, at the foot of the mountain brought Pocoranaka

Batih family formation consists of father, mother and children called Cak Kilo. Expansion Lil Kilo Kilo forming a small clan, then the clan was a large clan Panga and Wau.

Some terms are known in the system, among others, Wae Old kekrabatan (derived from the older sister), Wae Koe (derived from sister), Ana Rona (derivative family mama), Ana Vienna (derivative family of sisters), Amang (mom's brother), Host (father's sister), Emma Koe (sister of the father), Emma Tua (brother of father), Ende Koe (sister of mother), Old Ende (brother of the mother), Emma (the father), Ende (mama), Kae ( brother), Ase (sister), Nana (brother), and Enu (sister or wife).

Strata Manggarai community consists of three classes, first class is called Kraeng (King / nobles), gelarang second class (middle class), and the third group Lengge (the commoners).

The king has absolute power, which can not be paid tribute by the people required to work rodi. The charge of collecting tribute from gelarang Lengge (the commoners). The gelarang This is a land of kings and guardians as the mouthpiece between the groups with Lengge Kraeng. Lengge status is a status that has always threatened. This group must always pay taxes, forced labor workers, and likely to become bondsmen who at times can be brought to Bima and very little can go back to see his birthplace.

THE CULTURE OF NGADA TRIBE

0 comment
HISTORY OF CULTURE | THE CULTURE OF NGADA TRIBE | Ngada district that is located between the district of Ende (east) and Manggarai (west). Bajawa capital city is situated on a hill about 1000 meters above sea level. These communities are known for a four unitary traditional (ethnic group) who had various signs of a distinct entity.

Indigenous Unity are: (1) Nagekeo, (2) Ngada, (3) Riung, (4) Soa. Each unit features custom kekrabatannya maintain the support of such a sign of their unity.

Meaning kekrabatan families in the community generally in addition to the nearest Ngada in Sao nuclear family form the wider family of the symbols in unifying (One Peo, one Ngadhu, and Bagha). Ties carry the name of your rights and certain obligations. Examples kekrabatan every member of the customs union should obey the chiefs, particularly over land. Every community has a house principal supporters (traditional house) with a who heads the base of Puu Saka Sao Ngadhu ulu.

Traditional Houses also called Sao, a house made of materials such as in Ende / Lio (wall, roof, and floor / stage). Traditionally custom homes characterized by Weti (engraving). Carving consists of levels such as Keka, Sao Keka, Sao LIPI graduation, Sao Dawu Ngongo, Sao Weti Sagere, Sao Rapo Rica, Sao Lia Wheels.

Social coating called Ata Gae top, the middle layer is called Game Kisa, and coating the bottom is called Ata Hoo. Other sources mention the usual social coating is divided into three, Game (nobility), Game Kisa = Kuju, and lower class (slave). There is also a split of the four strata, Game (first nobility), Starch (second nobility) Steel (third nobility), and Bheku (fourth nobility).

The wives of each coating, especially coating the upper and middle course called Inegae / Finegae with the main task became head of the house who decide everything in the house began to income and expenditure.

Community support Nagekeo Paruwitu culture (hunting culture), Soa community supporter Reba (new year culture, harvest festival), Supporting farming culture in a wider sense is Ngadhu / Peo, occurs in some traditional unity Nagekeo, Riung, Soa and Ngada.

THE CULTURE OF ENDE TRIBE

0 comment
HISTORY OF CULTURE | THE CULTURE OF ENDE TRIBE | Boundaries of territory that stretches from the coast north to south it is to the east with the Sikka district, the western with Ngada district, north of the Flores Sea, south to the sea Sabu. 2046.6 km2 wide Ende district, regional climate is generally tropical with an average rainfall 6096 mm / year with an average number of rainy days in November, the most s / d in January.

Most areas received the most rain is like the central region mountain region Kalimutu, Detusoko, Welamosa which ranged between 1700 mm s / d 4000 mm / year.

Ende name itself is said to have a mention as Endeh, Nusa Ende, or in ancient literature called Independent or Ynde. There is a strong suspicion that the name was probably given around the 14th century when people trade maleyu large woven expensive nan ie gloves patola Tjindai similar in their trading voyages to Ende.

Ende / Lio often called in one name that can not be separated. Nevertheless the attitude of the ego in naming themselves as: Jao Ata ata Lio Ende or I can actually show there are clear boundaries between the two hallmark title.

Although public administration called Ende / Lio reside within clear boundaries as described above but in reality the culture (tereitorial culture) seems wider than in Ende Lio.

Settlement patterns in both the public and Lio Ende generally at the beginning of the family batih / core baba (father), ine (mama) and Ana (the kids) and then expanded after marrying the boy settled in or around the main house main house . The house itself generally is traditionally made from sago palm leaves and bamboo thatched reeds.

Layers of society nobleman called Mosalaki ria bewa Lio, a layer of medium bansawan called Puu and Tuke Mosalaki sani for ordinary people. While the community is called Ata NggaE Ende nobles, kings derivative Nggae Mere Ata, Ata-called middle-layer and slave dati Ata Hoo Hoo Hoo Tai called Manu.

THE CULTURE OF SIKKA TRIBE

0 comment
HISTORY OF CULTURE | THE CULTURE OF SIKKA TRIBE | Sikka bordered north by the Flores Sea, south of the Sea Sabu, and east to East Flores district, the western part of the district of Ende. The total area of  1731.9 km2 Sikka regency.

The capital of Maumere, Sikka is located overlooking the north shore, the sea of ??Flores. Sikka's name purportedly comes from the name of a place the Indochina region. Sikka and hence the possibility of people began immigrating kewilayah archipelago to the east and settled in a village south coast of the Sikka. This name then became the first native settlement in the district of Sikka Lela now. This derivative will be a landowner in the region.

Sikka social coating of society. The top layer is referred to as Ama Ine Gete Gahar consisting of kings and nobles. Coating is a common sign in ancient times was a legacy of the traditional society, in addition to material possessions warisa family and ancestors. The second layer is characterized by coating Ata Rinung help carry out the functions of the nobles and resume all regular mandate of the people / person most commonly known as the third layer which is Mepu or Maha.

In general, the Sikka district detailing his tribal name a few: (1) ata Sikka, (2) ata Krowe, (3) Tana ata ai, desamping it is also known tribes of newcomers, namely: (4) ata Goan, (5) ata Lua, (6) ata Lio, (7) ata Ende, (8) ata Sina, (9) ata Sabu / Rote, (10) ata Bura.

Sikka livelihoods of agriculture generally. The agricultural calendar as follows: Month Wulan Warrants - More Duru (October-November) is the month to clean up gardens, planting, in the month following the Gete-Bleke Bleke Doi - Kowo (January, Pebuari, March) period to weed the garden (rice and corn) and picking, in the month of Balu Goit - Balu Epan - Blepo (April s / d in June) period for picking and planting crops / legumes. While at the end of the month calendar of agricultural work Pupun Porun Blebe Oin Ali-Ilin (August-September).

CULTURE EAST FLORES

HISTIRY OF CULTURE | CULTURE EAST FLORES | Flotim is an archipelago with an area of 3079.23 km2, bordering counties in eastern Alor, Sikka district in the north west and south by Flores Sea, Savu Sea.

People who come from East Flores Lamaholot often referred to people, because the language used Lamaholot tribal language.

The concept of traditional house Flotim always been regarded as a center of tribal rituals. Custom home to be a place to honor Ekan Lera Wulan Tana (the highest form mengciptakan and the owner of the earth).

Coating social society depends on the beginning of the arrival of the first residents, since it is known the existence of landlords who decide everything, dividing the land to the tribe Mehen who arrived later, followed by tribal Ketawo who obtained the right to live and cultivate the land from the tribe Mehen.

Mehen tribes to maintain their existence is judged as a landlord, be they warriors-war warriors, who helped spare Ketawo.

Livelihoods of people Flotim / Lamaholot the main visible in the expression as follows:

  1. Ola monument, here Happen, lLua watana,
  2. Gere Kiwan, Pau overwhelmed heka ana,
  3. Geleka lewo gewayan, restaurant murin Laran.

Meaning:

Working in the fields, Slicing palm wine, shelled (search for sea slugs), work in the mountains, serve / give life family (wife and children) to serve the pertiwi / ground water, receiving foreign guests.

HOW ABOUT CULTURE OF PAPUA?

0 comment
HISTORY OF CULTURE | HOW ABOUT CULTURE OF PAPUA? | It has long been the northwest tip of New Guinea and the entire north coast is influenced by the resident population of the Moluccas (Ambon, Ternate, Tidore, Seram and Key), then it is not surprising that tribes along the coast (Fak-Fak, Sorong, Manokwari and Gulf Cenderawasih) were classified as more worthy of the Ras Ras Melanesia Papua. Protestant Christian missionaries or mission of Germany (Ottow & Geissler) arrives on the island Mansinam Manokwari February 5, 1855 to further spread the religion along the northern coast of Irian. On February 5, 1935, recorded more than 50,000 people embraced Protestant Christianity. Then in 1898 the Dutch East Indies government opened the first government post in Fak-Fak and Manokwari and the government continued with the opening post in Merauke in 1902.

From the Catholic mission Merauke religious activities initiated and in general along the southern coast of Irian. In 1933 there were 7100 people Catholic faiths. Primary education is largely organized by both the religious mission, in which school teachers and religious teachers generally come from Eastern Indonesia (Ambon, Ternate, Tidore, Seram, Key, Manado, Sanger-Talaud, and Timor), where lessons are given in Malay. The division of these two religious groups that seem identical to the situation in Holland where Protestant Christianity in North and Catholic Christians in the South.


Education gets a substantial share of the budget of the Dutch government, in the last years of the colonial period, this education budget reached 11% of all expenditure in 1961. However, education is not tailored to the needs of the labor sector of modern economies, and which are preferred are the values  of the Dutch and the Christian religion. At the end of 1961 education plan aimed at increasing business skills, but are preferred education for spiritual and social progress. Although the language of "Malay" language used as "Franca" (Lingua Franca), Dutch was still taught as a compulsory language from primary schools, the languages  English, German and French is a second language which began to be taught in high school.

In the 1950's basic education continues to be done by both the religious mission. It is recorded that in 1961 there were 496 mission schools without subsidies with some 20,000 students. Elementary schools are subsidized as much as 776 by the number of pupils in 1961 by about 45,000 students, and entirely handled by the missions, and religious studies is a compulsory subject in this case. In 1961 recorded 1,000 students studying in junior high school, 95 people of Irian Studying abroad such as Holland, Port Moresby, and Australia where there is a university entrance and there is an incoming School of Nursing School of Agriculture and Health (eg the Netherlands National Institute for Tropica Agriculture and the Papuan Medical College in Port Moresby).

Although the Netherlands will have to spend big to menbangun West Irian, but the relationship between town and village or villages remains limited. Marine and foreign relations conducted by the company Koninklijk Paketvaart Maatschappij (KPM), which connects the cities of Hollandia, Biak, Manokwari, Sorong, Fak-Fak, and Merauke, Singapore, the Netherlands. In addition there are small boats owned by the government for purposes of governmental duties. The Netherlands also opened 17 offices that serve the POS and telecommunications across the city. There is a radio telephone which can be contacted via Biak, Hollandia, Amsterdam, also in each city there is a phone. There are airlines Luchvaart Maatschappij Nederland Nieuw Guinea (NNGLM) that organizes regular flights between Hollandia, Biak, Manokwari, Sorong, Merauke, and Jayawijaya with the DC-3 aircraft, followed by the airlines and Koniklijk Luchvaart Kroonduif Maatschappij (KLM) for overseas flights from Biak. Already since 1950 the airfield became Biak International field. In addition to the flight, there are also flights organized by the Protestant mission called Mission Aviation Fellowship (MAF) and the flight organized by the Catholic mission named Associated Mission Aviation (AMA), which serves flights to missionary outposts in the hinterland. The streets there are around major cities in the Hollandia 140 Km, 135 Km Biak, Manokwari 105 Km, 120 Km Sorong, Fak-Fak 5 Km and 70 Km Merauke.

About the culture of the population or culture of people in West Irian can be said to be diverse, some tribes have a culture that is high enough and the amazing tribes of the South Coast of New Guinea who is now better known as the tribes' ASMAT "tribal group is notorious for having excellence in terms of carving and dance. Culturally diverse population of New Guinea can be characterized by a number of local languages, especially in West Irian. Based on the results of studies of husband-wife Barr of the Summer Institute of Linguistics (SIL) in 1978 there are 224 local languages in West Irian, where the number will continue to rise given the research is still ongoing. Languages in West Irian Melanesian languages ??are classified into groups and classified in 31 groups of languages, namely:
Tobati, Kuime, Sewan, Kauwerawet, Pauwi, Ambai, Turu, Wondama, Roon, Hatam, Arfak, Karon, Kapaur, Waoisiran, Mimika, Kapauku, Moni, Ingkipulu, Pesechem, Teliformin, Awin, Mandobo, Auyu, Sohur, Boazi, Klader, Komoron, Jap, Marind-Anim, Yenan, and Serki. The number of languages mentioned above are very varied ranging from dozens to tens of thousands of people.

Traditionally, this type of residential community of West Irian can be divided into 4 groups where each type has a mode of socio-economic and cultural life of its own.

Coastal population;
Population is the main livelihood as a fisherman in addition to gardening and sago mix tailored to the residential neighborhood. Communication with the city and the outside community is not foreign to them.

Rural population who inhabited the lowlands;
They include sago gatherers, gardening, fishing river, hunting dihuta surrounding environment. They were happy to wander in small groups. They are there to inhabit dry land and there are inhabiting brackish swamps and along streams and rivers. Customs of them tight and always be suspicious of newcomers.

Population inhabiting the mountain valleys;
They grow crops, and raising pigs as the main livestock, sometimes they hunt and reap the rewards of the forest. The pattern of settlement remained in groups, with a friendly appearance when compared with the second type population (2). Customs are strictly run by the "Pig Party" as its symbol. Tight in the hold and keep their promises. The revenge is an act of heroism in the search for social equilibrium through "War of Interest" that can be likened to a game or competition. Cosmos, the nature of suspicious strangers there but not as tight as the population of type 2 (two).

Population inhabiting the mountainous slopes of the mountain;
Looking at the place of settlements that remain on the slopes of the mountain, giving the impression that they occupy a strategic place to reach the enemy where as early as possible always detect every living creature that approached the settlements. Their customs are very strict, some are still "cannibal" until now, and suicide is a commendable action if violated customary because it will avoid the disaster of the entire group of people. Tribal wars is a search for a balance of social activity, and suspicious of strangers is quite high as well.

In various cultures of Irian population there is a mystical movement with a popular term that is often called cargo cults. There is an event that most parents cargo movement in Irian Jaya in 1861 and occurred at Biak named "Koreri". Events or movements of the last cargo in 1959 until 1962 in Gakokebo-Enarotali (Paniai district) called "WERE / WEGE" as has been noted that this movement was originally politically motivated.

At the time of leaving the Dutch West Irian, good positions in the field of governance, development (service-bureau) as both a leader and the leadership handed over to the sons of the soil medium (people of Papua / West Irian) in accordance with the capabilities they have. Also the whole house and property, including buildings and land owned by the Dutch handed over to their acquaintances Papuans (helper and workmates) to have, because they can not sell it and no buyer at that time.

The Netherlands also leave an excess of conflict between tribes as a result of political activity that is a conflict between "Elite Pro-Papua" and "Elite Pro-Indonesia" marked by antagonism between the "Tribe versus tribe Serui Biak, Jayapura Tribe land-versus Red Tribe Serui ", although in this case not everyone is pro-Biak Papua, not everyone was pro-Indonesia Serui and not everyone Tanah Merah was pro-Jayapura-Papua and pro-Indonesia.

Based on the experience of the Dutch in Indonesia or independence of the Dutch East Indies in 1945, the Dutch in West Irian colonize extreme caution at all in improving the lives of people in various fields, and deliberately slowing the progression of the Dutch in New Guinea / New Guinea in accordance with permintahaan and needs of people people of West Irian. Let's say that this is a form of "a New Ethical-Political Style". This includes efforts to form a "Papuan Nationalism". Dutch way so it causes the people of Irian Jaya did not feel that they are being colonized because they live in a state of the economy is good and not feel any pain and pressure from the Netherlands.

Papuan
Papua is a region of Indonesia is the word list (Provinces) in Indonesia, located on the western portion of New Guinea island and surrounding islands.

Papua is sometimes invoked as kerana Papua West Papua should be referred to the entire island of New Guinea or the portion south of the country its neighbors, Papua New Guinea. West Papua is the term preferred by nationalists who want to separate the Papuan than Indonesia and form their own country. Region (Province) was first identified by the call of West Irian in 1969 until 1973, his name and then exchanged into Irian Jaya by Suharto, a name still used by Rasmi until 2002. The name of the region (province) was changed to Papua in accordance with Law No. 21/2001 Special autonomy in Papua. During the colonial era, the area was called New Guinea Netherlands (Dutch New Guinea).

Papua is a region (province) located in the eastern region of the Republic of Indonesia and is a region full of hope. The terrain has not been much aktiviti diterokai by humans and Papua is rich with natural resources and promising opportunities for developing trade. The land is filled with vast forests, sea and various biotanya and millions of land suitable for agriculture. In their ground stomach also stores the original gas, oil and various minerals that are just waiting for diterokai.

Content listing
1 Governance
2 Geography
3 Climate
4 Topography
5 Social and Cultural
6 Languages
7 Religion
8 East Mountain in Papua

Government
(provincial) city thousands of Papua in Jayapura and composed than pentadbirannya: 9 namely Jayapura Regency Government, Jayawijaya, Merauke, Fak-Fak, Sorong, Manokwari, Biak Numfor, Yapen Waropen and Nabire. Two local government namely Jayapura and Sorong, three Government District Administrative namely Puncak Jaya, Mimika and Paniai. Number of District in Papua is the 173 districts covering 2712 villages and 91 urban villages.

Geography
Papua is located on the position of 0 ° 19 '- 10 ° 45' latitude and 130 ° 45 '- 141 ° 48' E, sesetengah occupies the western portion of Papua New Guinea which is the second largest island after Greenland. In fizikal, Papua is a region (province), the largest in Indonesia, with a land area of  21.9% of the amount of land throughout Indonesia kesuluruhan namely 421.981 km ², stretching from west to east (Sorong - Jayapura) along 1.200 km (744 stone) and from the north to the south (Jayapura-Merauke) along 736 km (456 stone). Other than a yard, Papua also has many islands along the pesisirannya. In coastal northern island of Biak there, Numfor, Yapen and Mapia. In the western portion is Salawati Island, Batanta, Gag, and Yefman Waigeo. In coastal South Island there are also Kalepon, Komoran, Adi, Dol├ík and length, whereas in the eastern portion bersempadan with Papua New Guinea.

Climate
Papua is located just south of the equator, but kerana the mountainous region the climate in Papua Indonesia varies greatly exceeds other regions. In western and northern coastal areas of tropical humid climate with average rainfall tadahan numbered between 1500-7500 mm per year. Tadahan highest rainfall occurred in northern coastal and central highlands, while the lowest occurred tadahan rain on the coast south. The air temperature varies parallel with increasing altitude. For every increase in altitude of 100 m (900 ft), the average temperature will decrease 0.6 ° C.

Topography
Papua topography varies from lowlands to highlands swampy filled with tropical rain forests, grasslands and valleys. In the middle portion also contained a series of high mountains along the 650 km. One portion than the mountain is a famous mountainous Jayawijaya kerana there are three that although the highest peak located in the equatorial ruler but always covered by salji in Jayawijaya peak with an altitude of 5.030 m (15,090 feet), the peak Trikora 5.160 m (15.480 feet) and Yamin 5.100 m summit (15,300 feet). The major rivers and their tributaries flowing to the south and north. Digul River which originated from the rural district of Merauke to flow into the Arafura Sea. Warenai River, which passes Wagona and Mamberamo Jayawijaya, Jayapura Paniai and empties into the Pacific Ocean. Rivers has an important role for communities along its flow as both a source of water for daily life, as a fisherman mahupun as a means of connecting to the outside area. In addition there are also several lakes, including the famous is Lake Sentani in Jayapura, Lake Yamur, Tigi Lake and Lake Paniai in Nabire and Paniai.

Social Culture
In areas of varied topography of Papua there are hundreds of ethnic groups with the culture and customs of each differed. With reference to the distinction topography and customs then in amnya, resident in Papua bezakan into 3 major groups namely:

  • Population of coastal areas and islands with common characteristics, a house on poles (houses on stilts), livelihoods pound sago and catch fish.
  • Residents living inland in areas rivers, swamps, lakes and valleys and foothills. In general livelihood is fishing, hunting and collecting forest products.
  • Highland area residents with gardening farming livelihoods in a simple.
  • In general, the Papuan people living in the kinship system that embraces paternity or patrilinea.

Language
In Papua, there are hundreds of regional languages which develop on the existing ethnic groups. Various various languages has led to difficulties in communicating between one ethnic group by other ethnic groups. Therefore, Indonesian Rasmi used by communities in Papua, even down to the interior.

Religion
Religion is one very important aspect to people's lives in Papua and in terms of divinity, Papua can serve as an example for other regions. Kristian religious Majoriti Papuans, however, along with the development ease of transport to and from Papua, the number of people of other faiths including Islam is also growing. Many preachers as there are foreigners mahupun Indonesian people themselves who perform religious missions in the interior-interior of Papua. Their important role in helping the community together through the schools there are preachers, perubatan mahupun direct assistance to educate local communities in the fields of agriculture, teaching Indonesian language and knowledge Amali others - others. Preachers also a pioneer in opening routes to inland areas that have not been nurtured by regular flights.

East Mountain in Papua
Carstensz Pyramids
Puncak Jaya
Peak Sumantri Brodjonegoro
Carstensz Peak East
Peak Trikora

THE CULTURE IN JAMBI TRIBE

HISTORY OF CULTURE | THE CULTURE OF JAMBI TRIBE| The original inhabitants of Jambi Province consists of several tribes, including Jambi Malay, Inner, Kerinci, penghulu, Move, Child (Kubu), and Bajau. Tribes first mentioned are the majority population of the entire population of Edinburgh, who settled along the river edge and around Batanghari.

Based on local folklore, the name Edinburgh comes from the word "jambe" which means "nut". This name has to do with a living legend in the community, the legend of King Princess Pinang conformable Cook, who had something to do with the origins of the province of Jambi.

Children In Kubu tribe or tribes are considered as the oldest in Edinburgh, having been settled in advance before the arrival of other tribes. They are thought to be descendants of soldiers who intend to expand the Minangkabau region to Edinburgh. There is a temporary information that states that this tribe is descended from the tribe Wedda mixing with the Negrito tribes, who then called the tribe Weddoid.

People Child distinguished on the tame and wild tribes. The term "benign" is given to groups that have been promoted, have a permanent residence, and have known agricultural ordinances. While the so-called "wild" are those who still roam the forests and have no fixed abode, are not familiar with farming systems, as well as communication with the outside world was still closed.

Tribes in Edinburgh in general, living in rural areas with a clustered pattern. Those who live sedentary incorporated in some array (collection of the long house and yard). Each village is led by a village head (Rio), assisted by the lap, cymbals, and the elders tengganai (village council). These were the ones in charge of taking decisions relating to the interests of rural community life.

Social strata of society in Edinburgh does not have a clear conception of the coating system in society. Therefore rarely never even heard the terms or specific titles to refer to social strata in society. They only know the titles of "fuzzy" to indicate the status of a person, such as smart people, the rich, the village and so on.

Clothing At first rural community to know everyday clothing of fabric and a sleeveless shirt. But after undergoing a process of acculturation to different cultures, everyday clothing that women wear a baju kurung and scarf wrapped around his head as a head covering. Whereas half the men wore pants that ballooned segment on the calf and are generally black in color, so it can move freely in performing their daily work. Clothing for men is equipped with a cap.

Art in Jambi Province is famous among other Batanghari, Fan perentak, Rangguk, Foreword, braid eight, Unison Satang.

Traditional ceremonies are still preserved, among others, Human Life Circle Ceremony, Birth, Adulthood, Marriage, Berusik betel nut jokes, Sit bertuik, betanyo upright, tie made promises semayo, stretching between the transfer terimo pusako and Death

Local Community Life Philosophy: Sepucuk jambi nine headman, batangnyo rajo nature.

HINDUST INFLUENCE IN ACEH

0 comment
HISTORY OF CULTURE | HINDUST INFLUENCE IN ACEH | Customs and culture of Aceh is thick with the nuances of Islam, is still influenced by Hindu traditions. This disebakan, before Islam came, Hinduism has developed in Aceh. After Islam came, Hindu elements eliminated, but the tradition still maintained until now.

"Hindu Influence in Aceh has terjadai since antiquity as written by the Dutch Orientalist experts in several books about the cultural history of Aceh". (Prof. Dr. H. Aboebakar Atjeh: 1972).

Acehnese cultural assimilation, never alluded to by Justin Mansoer Leupeung, uleebalang known as the poet. In Sanggamara saga, a character who lived contemporary with Justin tells Commander Mini Pole.

Aceh Traditional Tub history
Bacut sapat dudoe teuka
Peutama phon in the book
Arabs nyang peuteuka

Nyang keudua tub Meulayu
Nibak hindu with Java
China Nibak na sigeuteu
Badu Indigenous Ngon Manila

 Java Nation Ngon Meulayu
Le That teungku keunan teuka
Until rame nanggroe Makmu
Meurah Breuh bu meuhai pepper

Bak peukayan dum tire behavior
Hindu ureung nyang peuteuka
Cuba tilek behavior
Bajei Badu ladom PIH na

Ara Meulayu Susoen language support
West timu bacut biza
Arabic language support na sigeuteu
Jampu bawu PIH laen na

In line with Teuku Mansoer Leupueng, according to Mohammad H Said in the paper culture in Aceh Cultural Week (PKA) II, in August 1972 explains, in 1891, a foreign researcher named GK Nieman've found 150 words of the language Campa in the Acehnese language. Likewise, the language of Khmer (Cambodian), but a very dominant language is Malay and Arabic.

About Hindu in Aceh, as he had been expressed by the Dutch historian JC Van Luer, said that the history and culture of Aceh before the arrival of Islam and western nations have been filled with a foundation of Hindu-centric (Indonesian Trade and Society, p. 261)

Although Islam has a strong, sebahagian Hindu tradition and way of life there that continue to cling to the people of Aceh. Even the tradition that is positive to be maintained, such as living traditions worked together and various other traditions and elements of life are gradually replaced with Islamic Shari'a.

Hindu traditions that have been Islamicised is still there today, as in the event khanduri laet (kenduri sea) conducted by the fishermen. Once at sea khenduri this event, buffalo blood was collected, asoe in (internal organs) and its buffalo head, wrapped again with its skin and then washed out to sea as an offering to the inhabitants of the sea.

This sea festivity event still survive until now, but along with the advent of Islam, giving offerings to the marine inhabitants removed, replaced with a ceremonial feast sesajennya manufacture and prayer together. Beef or buffalo are slaughtered is eaten with orphans and poor people to a celebration that carried out the blessed.

Cutting white cock and black cock on daka (gate) ponds by fish farmers before the harvest is also a remnant of Hindu traditions that continue to this day by the traditional fish farmers. Thigh, liver and chicken breast is well cooked, baked and fried, along with other dishes wrapped in banana leaves separated and then united in the stem nut is shaped like a canoe to be mounted on trees or wooden rod in the middle pond. This is also the remains of Hindu tradition. Now this event began to be replaced with a meal and pray together before the pond harvest orphans.

Additionally peusijuek (fresh flour) of valuables such as newly purchased train and car, using different types of grass. With the grass roots that has been tied up, water was sprinkled into the goods ditepung offer .. Events peusoen or peusijeuk people who are recovering from illness or travel away from home is also the remains of Hindu tradition.

Likewise coconut divisive event at peutreun aneuk miet (bring your baby out of the house the first time) juag a Hindu traditions that still exist today in the lives of the Acehnese people. In dress, bun hairpin on women is also a dressing procedures are entrenched in the Hindu society in Aceh until now.

In fact there are more condensed again and forbidden in Islam, such as the cult of big trees with hanging flowers are tied with threads on various branches of the tree by the cult of magic, it is also a Hindu culture.

According H.M. Zainuddin in his "Aceh in the inscription and the Paths of History '. Before Islam came to Aceh, in Aceh has been developed cities such as Hindu kingdom: the kingdom of Poly in Pidie developed around the year 413 AD Sahe empire often also called Sanghela in the region and Meureudu Ulei GLE, empire was formed and carried by migrants from the island of Ceylon. Kingdom of Indrapuri in Indrapuri. Indrapatra in Ladong kingdom. Indrapurwa kingdom in Lampageu, Kuala pancu.

All Hindu cities after Islam strong in Aceh were destroyed. Traces of the kingdom could still be checked even though they had buried, like in the area of ??Paya Seutui, District Ulim (Ulim border with Meurah Two), the ruins at Ladong.

In fact, according to HM Zainuddin, Indrapuri mosque built over the ruins of the temple. In 1830, Haji Muhammad, better known as the Tuanku Tambusi also tear down the temples and the stone is then used to build mosques and fortresses

Indonesia Culture

0 comment
HISTORY OF CULTURE | INDONESIA CULTURE | Indonesian culture is the entire national culture, local culture, and cultures of foreign origin that has existed in Indonesia before Indonesia became independent in 1945.

National Culture

The national culture is a culture that is recognized as a national identity. The definition of national culture according to TAP MPR No.II 1998, namely: "The national culture based on Pancasila is the embodiment of creativity, work and intention of Indonesia and is an overall effort to develop Indonesia's human dignity as a nation, and are directed to provide insight and significance in national development in all areas of national life. Thus the National Development is building a civilized ". (Ministry of Education and Culture, Existence, Meaning and Peak-Peak Old Culture and Indigenous Community Pendukukungnya, Semarang: P & K, 199).

The national culture in view of Ki Hajar Dewantara is "the peaks of the regional culture". Quote this statement refers to understand the unity of the more established, so that more and more perceived than ketunggalikaan diversity. His form a unitary state, the national economy, national laws, as well as the national language.

Definition given by Koentjaraningrat can be seen from peryataannya: "a distinctive and quality of any ethnic origin, the origin could identify themselves and create a sense of pride, that the national culture".

The statement refers to the tops of the regional culture and ethnic culture that can cause a sense of pride for Indonesia if it appears to represent a common identity. (Nunus Supriadi, "Local Culture and National Culture").

The statements contained in the Guidelines of State Policy is a translation of the 1945 Constitution Article 32. Today the cultural figures of Indonesia are questioning the existence of regional cultures and national cultures associated the abolition of the three sentence explanation to section 32 and the emergence of a new paragraph. They questioned the possibility of schism by the culture of the region if restrictions on the national culture is not explained clearly.

Before the amendment, the 1945 uses two terms to identify the regional culture and national culture.

National culture, is the old cultures and contained as a genuine peaks in the regions throughout Indonesia, while the national culture itself is understood as a cultural nation that already are in a position that has meaning for the entire nation of Indonesia.

Within there are elements of a unifying national culture of Indonesia Banga who was conscious and had a late spread nationally. In it there are elements of national culture and foreign cultural elements, and elements of the new creation or invention of national results.

Regional Culture Being In Indonesia

Regional culture is reflected in various aspects of community life in all regions in Indonesia. Each region have the characteristic of different cultures in the form of traditional house, dance, song, Music, Musical Instruments, Drawing, Sculpture, Clothing, Sounds, Literature / writing, and Food.

Typical Modern Culture Indonesia

Dangdut music: Elvie Sukaesih, Rhoma Irama; Film Indonesia: "Leaves on Top Pillow" (1998) which was awarded Best Film at the "Asia Pacific Film Festival" in Taipei; and Literature: New Poet. (By: Raymond N. FRS - Of, various sources), -

Brief History of Pasemah

0 comment
HISTORY OF CULTURE | Brief History of Pasemah | Interesting illustration of where the people Pasemah ever written by JSG Grambreg, a government official Dutch East Indies, written in 1865 as follows:

.... Those who climb the Bukit Barisan of Bengkulu, and then set foot on the ground that the kingdom was so vast Palembang; and whoever stepped from the north Ampat Lawang (four gates of the country) to the beautiful plains of latitude, so he reached the foot of the western side of Mount Dempo, then surely he was in the land of Pasemah. If he walked around the foot of the volcano, is he arrived at the east side of the vast plateau of slightly curved toward the southeast, and if from there he went on further to the east again until the plateau ends in a row mountian where, from that side, formed a natural border between Pasemah an independent country and the Dutch East Indies territory ....


From the quote it seems that the time Pasemah area still are not in the Dutch East Indies colony. Military operations to conquer the Dutch own Pasemah long, from 1821 until 1867. Johan Hanafiah humanist South Sumatra, in the Foreword of South Sumatra book Against the 19th Century Colonial stated that the resistance of the surrounding Pasemah and this is the longest in the history of the resistance struggle in South Sumatra 19th century, lasted nearly 50 years.

Johan Hanafiah also stated that initially the area, especially the Europeans, not knowing who actually Pasemah people. The English, like Thomas Stamford Rafless a British war hero against the Dutch in Java (1811) and finally got a position in Bengkulu, with the rank of major (1817-1824) called the Passumah. However, raised impression is that people are Passumah people wild. In The British History in West Sumatra, which was written by John Bastin, stated that the bandits who do not know the law (lawless) and brave the ever attacking ground Passumah Manna district in 1797. It added that in 1818, England suffered two disastrous in the southern regions of war with the people Passumah and deaths due to smallpox.

Usage Passumah name as used by the British people apparently have also appeared in the Portuguese report much earlier. Mentioned in one Internet site that the Portuguese had landed in Pacem or Passumah (Puuek, Sumatra Island) in May 1524. However, from personal correspondence with Marco Ramerini and Barbara Watson Andaya, obtained confirmation that the report referred to in Portuguese it is Aceh, rather than as a known Pasemah in South Sumatra today. This is also indicated by the location itself Pacem is written in the 05_09 'North Latitude - 97_14' east longitude). Mount Dempo himself mentioned by Gramberg above 04_02 positioned 'South Latitude - 103_008' east longitude.

The name is now known Pasemah is actually more the fault of the Dutch pronunciation, according to Mohammad Saman, a humanist and elders there. The correct pronunciation is Besemah as still used by people who live there. However, now better known is the name Pasemah. That said, the emergence of the name is because the shock Besemah Puyang when Atong Youngest see a lot of fish "Semah" in a river that flows in the valley of Dempo. Puyang spoken by then was "Be-semah" which means there are plenty more fish in the river semah. It is also written in an ancient manuscript, entitled History of Latin beraksara Pasemah stored in the National Library in Jakarta. In this manuscript narrated that Atong Youngest to Palembangan, Muara Lematang. She went and checked the jungle which later named Paduraksa which means "new review". His wife, the Princess Senantan Buway, after washing the rice in the river, returned to land with a fish semah. So the land was later named by Atong Pasemah Youngest as Tana.

Youngest Atong was believed to be the ancestors of the Pasemah. According to the above manuscript, Puyang Pasemah are descendants of the Majapahit. He was one of eight children of a king of Majapahit who nicknamed the Queen Sinuhun. Gramberg himself also wrote this:

People Pasemah rigid and unwavering attitude when standing to assert that the grandfather's ancestors came from Java, and more than that, that he came from Majapahit, he was then told about the fairy tales (mythology) who lived in his circle.

Interesting to add that Gramberg also describes the most striking difference between the Malays Pasemah with plateau live nearby. According to him, the first Pasemah are rice farmers who build, install drainage and use of animals of burden. Thus, in the case of farm-level position higher than the surrounding Malays who only knows cultivation. In addition, the face looks more intelligence, more well developed body build, with soccer a more energetic actions. Then, with the pagan religion and the roots in terms of vocabulary used, Gramberg more confident with the theory that people Pasemah is entered ancient Javanese race.

As for paddy fields, ancient history manuscripts Pasemah also revealed the story of Sidi Keriya Puyang that invites people to make rice fields, so that people Pasemah then make endless fields. This again suggests that the first Pasemah enough time in the processing of agricultural land, and even rice fields.

About Atung Youngest Puyang, somewhat different from the story above, Rahman Effendi Martabaya (2004) mentions that in fact is Atung Youngest Crown Royal Rao in India, with the full name YM Sri Mapuli Atung Youngest. According to him, led Atung Youngest second navy of the Kingdom Rao sent in the year 101 AD after Saka/179 first force sent previously to Sumatra there is no news. In the writings were discovered there Martabaya river water / Ayik Besemah from the highlands of Bukitraja Mehendra Mahendra (Raje Bendare Hill) which flows into the West and the estuary of the River Lematang Pagar Alam area. This Raje Bendare hill till now still there, located in the district of Tanjung Sakti.

At this time, Pasemah known as the name of a tribe in the highlands around Mount Dempo (3159 m) and Bukit Barisan (400-900 m), South Sumatra. All around there are other tribes such as SEMENDO (cited stem from the same lineage), latitude, Gumay, Empat Lawang. However, sometimes, directly linked to Pasemah Lahat District. That is, Pasemah considered also include the tribes in the vicinity, such as the latitude). Pasemah itself, in some sources are divided into several sections, namely Pasemah Lebar, Ulu Pasemah Manna (south), Ulu Pasemah Latitude (Northwest side), turbid water Pasemah (located far behind the Bukit Barisan. The last three residents came from Width Pasemah who emigrated and to adapt to the surrounding areas of the former Sultanate of Palembang and the British colonies in Bengkulu. Pasemah Manna Ulu itself, the Dutch colonial period in Bengkulu Residency. Kecamatan Tanjung just a part of South Sumatra in 1948, after the election sound in a simple way to decide to become a part of or Bengkulu South Sumatra. However, the area seems most appropriate to refer to the existence of a border tribe Pasemah South Sumatra and Bengkulu.

Apart from that, Pasemah itself has a special place in archeological studies in connection with the relics of pre-history. As mentioned by an archaeologist Peter Bellwood of Australian National University (ANU), Pasemah Highlands is one of the central findings of prehistoric buildings are important in Indonesia. Pasemah megalithic buildings are mentioned very interesting and has attracted attention, since the year 1950. Various forms of stone sculpture known as The Art of Pasemah. In connection with the memorial stone in Pasemah, Dutch anthropologist Heine-Geldern has estimated that this is an indication has a close relationship with China of about 1-2 century BC, its resemblance to a similar heritage in a region in China. Some description of Victor Purcell (1965) Lewis is quoted as follows:

... Dr. Heine-Geldern in 1934 to explain stylistic similarities between the prehistoric rock carvings in the area Pasemah in southern Sumatra as the one on the tomb of China's General Huo-ping K'iu in Shensi Province China, which was made in 117 BC. This, he says, seems to indicate there are at least close relationship with China, which may have started there around the first and second century BC ...
Bellwood doubts in his conclusion that the relationship with China has occurred in the centuries that. According to him, Indonsia trade contacts with China may be very rare before the Tang Dynasty (618-906 AD). While estimates Mahruf Kamil Pasemah existing tribes around the early 700s. This is based on the assumption that the inscription Palas Pasemah in Lampung and 680 AD many had something to do with the Land Pasemah.

Description:
Writing on the part of the complete article Aloysius research Gunadi Brata (Research Institute of Atma Jaya University, Yogyakarta, October - 2005) entitled "Community Coffee Problematika Pasemah".

History of Islam in Indonesian

0 comment
HISTORY OF CULTURE | History of Islam in Indonesian | It is important to learn the history of preaching Islam in Indonesia. In accordance with the Word of God in the Qur'an verse 111 that there ibrah study history (lessons). With memepelajari history in the past, we can draw lessons for the future created a plan or a better concept, especially for mission in our country, Indonesia. In accordance with the hadith of the Messenger of Allah "Today should be better than yesterday and tomorrow should be better than today".

"Indeed in their stories, there is instruction for people of understanding ..." (Surah Yusuf verse 111).

Language is the highest value of a civilization. A nation is affected certain value if the language was influenced by these values. Indonesian heavily influenced by the Arabic language (language of the Qur'an), for example words like the word bottom of this ibrah meaningful lessons and many more Indonesian language derived from Arabic. This proves that the culture of Indonesia sudahdipengaruhi by Islamic culture.

History of Islam in Indonesia through the half - a crucial stage:


1. First round, 7th century BC (1st century Hijri).

In the 7th century AD, Islam had come to the archipelago. The Dai who came to Indonesia comes from the Arabian Peninsula that has been adapted to the nation of India namely Gujarat and there are also people who have to adapt to the Chinese nation, from many different directions ie from the Silk Road (trade routes) dawah start reaching the coast-the coastal archipelago.

Since the beginning of Islam never discriminating function for someone to act as dai (missionary interpreters). Perform religious obligations in Islam is not just caste (class) only certain but for every society in Islam. While in other religions that have only certain levels of authority to spread the religion, namely the pastor. Appropriate expression of Imam Shaheed Hasan Al-Bana "Nahnu du'at qabla kulla syai" means that we are preachers before other professions.

Dawah arrive in Indonesia through its sailors or merchants carrying merchandise also bring Islamic morality as well as introduce Islamic values. Berbenalan with the Islamic community as open-minded, glorified as a man and this is what distinguishes the entry of other religions before Islam and after. For example the entry of the Christian religion to Indonesia this coincided with Gold (gold or wealth) and glory (glory or power) than the Gospel which is the motive of religion coincided with the spread of colonialism and power. While Islam is a peaceful way.

So first of all spread Islam in the archipelago, from the Muslim communities residing in coastal areas evolved into the port cities and trading and growing until it became the Islamic kingdoms of Aceh to start Ternata and which is the center of the kingdom Tidore Eastern part of Indonesia to Irian Jaya region.

2. Second half, 13th century BC.

In the 13th century AD Islamic empires stood in various corners of the archipelago. Which is a resurrection moment of political forces, especially the people of Java region when the Majapahit kingdom was gradually decreased his authority because of internal conflict. This was exploited by Sunan Kalijaga which foster in those areas with the descendants of Raden Fatah was successively kings of Majapahit to establish the first Islamic kingdom in Java island is the kingdom of Demak. At the same time also emerged the Islamic kingdoms of others, although it is still localized.

In the 13th century AD there fenoma called the Wali Songo ie clerics who spread propaganda in Indonesia. Wali Songo develop a missionary or Islamization process through the channels:
A) Trade
B) Marriage
C) Education (pesantren)

Pesantren is a genuine institution of the roots of Indonesian culture, and also the adoption and adaptation Hasanah pre-Islamic culture that is not out of the Islamic values that can be utilized in the spread of Islam. This proves Islam is very much appreciate the local culture while not contradictory to Islamic values.

D) Art and culture
At that time the media spectacle that is very famous in Javanese society kkhususnya ie puppets. Wali Songo using puppets as a medium of propaganda with the previous coloring these puppets with Islamic values. Which characterizes the influence of Islam in the wayang teaches egaliterialisme namely human equality before God with the inclusion of such figures punakawam Semar, Gareng, Petruk, and Bagong. The Guardian also composed traditional songs (regions) in the Islamic style, this means nasyid already exist in Indonesia since the time of the guardian. In traditional ceremonies were also given the values of Islam.
 E) Tasawwuf
The fact of history that there tarikat-tarikat in Indonesia being the network of spreading Islam.

3. Third round, the Dutch colonial period.
 
In the 17th century BC, precisely the year 1601 came the Dutch East Indies empire regions of the archipelago which was initially only trade but eventually colonize. The Dutch came to Indonesia with its trading room that is VOC, semejak almost all regions of the archipelago was colonized by the Dutch East Indies except Aceh. At that time between the kingdoms of Islam in Indonesia has not had time to form alliances or cooperation. This causes the spread of propaganda was interrupted.
 
With sumuliayatul (perfection) of Islam that there is no separation between certain aspects of life with others, this has been applied by the scholars at that time. When the occupation came, changing the Islamic boarding schools became headquarters of struggle, the students-students (students of pesantren) to jundullah (army of God) ready to fight invaders while ulamanya become commander of the army. Almost all regions in Indonesia to fight against the Muslims and their occupiers is ulamanya.

Potential to grow and expand in the 13th century into the power of resistance against the occupiers. This can be evidenced by the saga-saga in the Islamic kingdoms which contains the lyric-poem of struggle. Clerics inflame Jihad against the infidels of the Dutch colonizers. That eventually overwhelmed the Dutch experience using these strategies:
  • Politics of divide et impera, which is in fact a divisive or a play off between the strength of indigenous scholars, the Padri wars for example in West Sumatra and Java Diponegoro war.
  • Generating Prof. Dr. Cristian Snouk Hourgonye alias Abdul Gafar keIndonesiaan a Professor at the University of the Netherlands East Indies was also an Orientalist who had studied Islam in Mecca, he argues that the Dutch government allowing Muslims to worship only mahdhoh (special) and forbidden to speak or to make practical politics. The idea was undertaken by the Dutch government and one of them is a restriction against "Muslims will perform Hajj because that's when the struggle against colonialism maturation occurs.
4. Fourth round, 20th century AD
 
Early 20th century AD, the Dutch colonialists began to conduct political ethics or politics of reciprocation which is actually just make a layer of society that can help them in his government in Indonesia. Politics reciprocation providing education and jobs to the Indonesian people, especially Muslims but in fact the purpose for western sciences mensosialkan far from the Quran and hadith and will maketh colonial dolls. It is also preparing for the layers of bureaucracy that can not be held by another by the Dutch people. Pendidikanpun not getting the whole community but only Priyayi class (aristocracy), because that's what leaders are berasalkan ¬ movement leaders of the nobility.

Strategy of resistance against invaders in this period to be more formal organization than with weapons. Stand Organization of Islamic States is a national movement of the first organizations in Indonesia in 1905 that have a member of the aristocracy and the commoners to cover a large area. Budi Utomo 1908 stand that is still a regionalism that is Java, because it can be called the Organization of Islamic States first National movement instead of Budi Utomo.

Islamic States of the famous figures of HOS Tjokroaminoto who led the organization at the age of 25 years, a priyayis that because Islam holds it is expelled so that only a commoner. He worked as a laborer in a sugar factory. He was a major inspiration for the National movement in Indonesia. States of Islam under his leadership became a force to be reckoned Netherlands. Figures and other Islamic States is H. , Agus Salim and Abdul Muis, who nurture the youths who joined the Young Islamitend Bound is a national nature, which grew up on oath youth in 1928.

Islamic Da'wah in Indonesia continues to flourish in institutions such as the birth of Nadhatul Ulama, Muhammadiyah, Persis, and others. Institutions to those incorporated in the Islamization MIAI (Islamic Assembly of 'Ala Indonesia) which later changed its name to Masyumi (Shura Council of Indonesian Muslims), whose members are the heads of institutions to these Islamization.

During the Japanese occupation, carried out a strategy to divide the unity of the people by the Japanese forces by forming Sumubu ministries (Ministry of Religious Affairs). Japanese Dutch to continue the strategies carried out against Muslims. There was a Japanese who is familiar with Islamic Colonel Huri, he cut clerics in coordination with the regional center, so that scholars in the village of ill-informed and consequently make people can terbodohi.

Japanese occupation government provides facilities for Indonesia's independence by establishing BPUPKI (Investigation Agency Efforts Preparation of Indonesian Independence) and followed by PPKI (Preparatory Committee for Indonesian Independence) and more conical longer a Committee of Nine, the Committee is to formulate the Charter of Jakarta on June 22, 1945. Piagram Jakarta is the highest consensus to describe the diversity of Indonesian people who are looking for a formula to live together. But there is controversy in the sentence that this charter is removal of "7 words" run the full liability for the followers of the Islamic Shari'a-adherents are located on the fourth paragraph after the sentence was based on Ketuhan State Almighty.

The fifth round, 20th & 21st century. At this stage the process of da'wah (Islamization) in Indonesia have the feature of the globalization of information with the influences of international Islamic movements that will effectively build the strength of Islam is more intact, including all their dimensions. Actually if Indonesia does not colonized the process of Islamization in Indonesia will take place in peace because they are culturally and structurally build strength. This is because the initial entry of Islam that is humane, the dignity of people who can build a large majority of sudra (the lowest group of community structures in the kingdom) and build the local economy. History proves that the port cities (trade center), which represents the cities whose economies are better developed cities of Islam. In other words Islam in Indonesia when the occupation will not occur is a Muslim region of the largest and strongest. Nevertheless God destine Amount of population in Indonesia is the world's largest Muslim, but still a big question mark whether the quality is comparable with the quantity.